And where did we get the name for Punnett squares? From a man named R.C. Punnett. He was a genetics professor at the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom. “Punnett had a role in connecting Mendelism with statistics. In 1908, Punnett was asked at a lecture to explain why recessive phenotypes still persist — if brown eyes were dominant, then why wasn't the whole country becoming brown-eyed? Punnett couldn't answer the question to his own satisfaction. He in turn asked his friend the mathematician, G. H. Hardy. Out of this conversation came the Hardy-Weinberg Law which calculates how population affects genetic inheritance. “ http://www.ams.org/featurecolumn/archive/genome3.html
QUESTIONS ABOUT THE NATURE OF SCIENCEWhat is science?
What is a theory? What are examples of theories?What is an inference? What are science processes? Be able to identify. (Do not confuse with steps of the scientific method)
Know how to graph data and interpret graphs.
What do scientists do with data?
Know that scientists use the metric system for measuring.
QUESTIONS ABOUT EVOLUTION AND NATURAL SELECTIONWhat is variation?What is selective breeding (artificial selection) and what is natural selection?What are the steps in the process of natural selection? Be able to explain: The signficance of overpopulation The significance of variation in populations
The significance of the struggle for existence
The significance of differential survival and reproduction
Be able to explain predator and prey interactions in relation to natural selection.Who was Charles Darwin?
Know what these are: homologous, analogous, vestigial structuresHuman classification and evolution, extinction, hominids, hominoids.What is a species?Be able to describe the evidence that scientists use that supports the theory of evolution.
Be able to describe an example of evolution over geological time, such as whale evolution, human evolution, evolution of the horse, etc.Know how to create and use a dichotomous key. Know about classification of bacteria, and antibiotic resistance in bacteria.
QUESTIONS ABOUT GENETICS
Know how to draw and interpret a Punnett square for crosses between tall and short plants. Know what phenotypes and genotypes are. Know how to determine genotypic and phenotypic ratios and proportions.
Know what dominant and recessive is. Know what chromosomes are. Know the number of chromosomes in the human body and in human germ cells. Know what homozygous and heterozygous are. Know what a hybrid is. Know what alleles are.
Know why Gregor Mendel is important to the study of genetics, what he studied and why, and the concepts he contributed to the field of genetics.
Know about sex-linked traits, how to use Punnett Squares for those traits, and the importance of the X and Y chromosomes. Know what autosomes and sex chromosomes are. Know what a karyotype is and how gender of offspring is determined.